By Anish Bhardwaj, Nabil J. Alkayed, Jeffrey R. Kirsch, Richard J. Traystman
Because the 3rd prime reason for loss of life within the usa, stroke debts for one in each fifteen deaths and is the foremost reason for incapacity within the kingdom. Compiled by way of a popular editorial staff, this reference bridges the space among simple technological know-how and sufferer care protocols, and collects forty three expertly written chapters that variety from laboratory-based study on animal versions to the development, mechanisms, remedy, and analysis of illnesses akin to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), focal ischemic stroke, and worldwide cerebral ischemia.
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Extra resources for Acute Stroke: Bench to Bedside (Neurological Disease and Therapy)
The etiology of vasospasm remains unclear. Current hypotheses include endothelial dysfunction secondary to inflammation of the arterial wall and transendothelial migration of macrophages and neutrophils (5,6), nitric oxide (NO) scavenging by such blood-degradation products as oxy-hemoglobin (7), depletion of NO secondary to NO synthase dysfunction (8), direct vasoconstriction due such to spasmogenic proteins as endothelin-1 (9), and dysregulation of electrolyte channels in the smooth muscle cell, such as K+ (10) and Mg2+ (11).
REFERENCES 1. Zubkov AY, Lewis AI, Raila FA, Zhang J, Parent AD. Risk factors for the development of post-traumatic cerebral vasospasm. Surg Neurol 2000; 53:126–130. 2. Zubkov AY, Pilkington AS, Bernanke DH, Parent AD, Zhang J. Posttraumatic cerebral vasospasm: clinical and morphological presentations. J Neurotrauma 1999; 16:763–770. 3. Yamashima T, Kashihara K, Ikeda K, Kubota T, Yamamoto S. Three phases of cerebral arteriopathy in meningitis: vasospasm and vasodilatation followed by organic stenosis.
Allen GS, Henderson LM, Chou SN, French LA. Cerebral arterial spasm. 1. In vitro contractile activity of vasoactive agents on canine basilar and middle cerebral arteries. J Neurosurg 1974; 40:433–441. 22. Boullin DJ, Mohan J, Grahame-Smith DG. Evidence for the presence of a vasoactive substance (possibly involved in the aetiology of cerebral arterial spasm) in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 1976; 39:756–766. 23. Okwuasaba FK, Weir BK, Cook DA, Krueger CA.
Acute Stroke: Bench to Bedside (Neurological Disease and Therapy) by Anish Bhardwaj, Nabil J. Alkayed, Jeffrey R. Kirsch, Richard J. Traystman