By Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu
This ebook offers rainy chemical sol-gel and hydrothermal tools for 1D oxide nanostructure education. those tools symbolize an enticing path to multifunctional nanomaterials synthesis, as they're flexible, reasonably cheap and, hence, applicable for acquiring quite a lot of oxide fabrics with adapted morphology and homes. 3 particular oxides (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO) are mentioned intimately for you to illustrate the primary of the sol-gel and hydrothermal instruction of 1D oxide nanostructures. different oxides synthesized through this technique also are in short offered.
Throughout the booklet, the correlation among the tubular constitution and the physico-chemical homes of those fabrics is highlighted. 1D oxide nanostructures show fascinating optical and electric houses, as a result of their limited morphology. additionally, a well-defined geometry could be linked to chemically lively species. for instance, the natural SiO2 nanotubes provided a moderate photocatalytic task, whereas the Pt-doped SiO2 tubular fabrics act as microreactors in catalytic reactions. in relation to titania and titanate nanotubes, huge particular floor zone and pore quantity, ion-exchange skill, superior mild absorption, and quick electron-transport potential have attracted major examine curiosity. The chemical and actual transformations (microwave assisted hydrothermal tools) mentioned right here enhance the formation kinetics of the nanotubes. The ZnO nanorods/tubes have been ready as random debris or as huge components of small, orientated 1D ZnO nanostructures on various substrates. within the latter case a sol-gel layer is deposited at the substrate sooner than the hydrothermal education. utilizing applicable dopants, coatings of ZnO nanorods with managed electric habit should be obtained.
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Additional resources for 1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods
The elaborate diagrams could explain many of the contradictory or similar results regarding the TiNTs preparation. For example, the results obtained by Preda et al.  show that no matter of the precursors used, at the same alkaline solution concentration (10 M) and the same temperature of thermal treatment (140 C), nanotubes with similar structure and morphology were obtained. The results are in agreement with Morgan’s morphological diagrams that show that for all precursors used, the temperature and the duration are situated in the domain of TiNTs formation.
Other studies [47, 89] have shown that the anatase phase is preferred in the synthesis of TiNTs, due to its high surface energy. This aspect was confirmed also based on the crystalline characteristics. Comparatively, Tsai and Teng  consider that the rutile phase would be more suitable than anatase in the rearrangement of the intermediate phase that occurs in the TiNTs formation. If rutile is used as a precursor in the synthesis of the TiO2-based nanotube formation, the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment should be increased, but also the duration and the final structure will be that of the single-phase crystalline nanorods with excellent thermal stability [40, 81].
Regardless of the crystal structure, the TiNTs pattern is characterized by four typical diffraction lines, positioned at 2θ ~ 10 , 24 , 28 , and 48 . A very broad diffraction line positioned at around 10 corresponds to the interlayer distance, d(200) [27, 75], of the layered structure TiNTs walls which depends on sodium content. 8 nm. The broadening of the diffraction lines, due to the crystallite size effect and the position of protons and sodium ions inside the crystalline lattice, makes the identification of the crystal structure of obtained TiNTs difficult.
1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods by Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu